KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.

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A reproducible number-based sizing method for pigment-grade titanium dioxide

The data presented demonstrate that the typical difficulties of sizing processes are overcome by the proposed method of sample preparation and image analysis. Sample preparation A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment. In the second step, the kornos are binarised by using automated grey-value threshold determination [ 22 ]. The keonos through the particles can in principle be located close to the centre of mass, in which case the section gives the maximum kronoss along the viewing direction for a convex particle plane 3 in Fig.

This article is part of the Thematic Series “Physics, chemistry and biology of functional nanostructures II”. Both phases have a number of advantages and disadvantages, which lead to their typical applications.

For the anatase pigment, lower standard errors are found for the minimum Feret diameter. Purwin are gratefully acknowledged for their untiring efforts in preparing and measuring numerous samples in 2630 to establish the method presented.

A true size distribution of the pigment will only be obtained if the full, three-dimensional shape of the particles is evaluated, e. In the ideal case, the size distribution of the final products is optimised for the optical pigment properties, which are described by using Mie’s theory.


In the chloride process, rutile in the form of sand or slag, for example, is treated with gaseous chlorine to form titanium tetrachloride. The high reproducibility of the measurement, which leads to a standard error below 2 nm for all evaluated measurements, justifies use of the non-parametric rank sum test of Siegel and Tukey kronso 21 kroons to test whether the measured distribution can be attributed to the same population.

No significant differences between the standard errors for the ECD and minimum Feret ironos measurements are obtained for the rutile pigment. A macroscopic amount is taken for the mixing and embedding procedure. Since automated detection routines are primarily based on grey-value thresholding, overlapping particles are a serious problem, which is illustrated in Fig.

The cases of planes 1 and 2 give rise to a rim of lower intensities at the particle edges.

It prides itself on offering the most potent whitening agents available. Since the whole representative amount is embedded, effects of flushing are ruled out and the low viscosity of the resin ensures that sedimentation is not a problem.

KRONOS® 2360

Based on the assumption of a common, known particle shape, stereologic corrections may be used to estimate the “real” size distribution, either from the measured projection sizes or from the measured section sizes [ 1519 — 20 ]. Requirements on measurements for the implementation of the European Commission definition of the term ‘nanomaterial’. The “cone and quartering” method ensures that the embedded sample is representative.

Preparing and applying a mask image, followed by particle detection Fig. It included the rutile samples Rb05 through Rb10 and the anatase samples Ab05 through Ab Therefore, the uncorrected section-size distributions presented in this publication give lower estimates of the real particle size distributions of the analysed pigments. The boundaries are detected reasonably well for the counted particles. Schematic view of five different projections of one agglomerate found in KRONOSreproduced from an electron tomogram.


Consequently, the choice of the measuring technique is somewhat arbitrary. Support Center Support Center. J Volcanol Geotherm Res.

The cases of planes 3 and 4 in Fig. Publications Office of the European Union; The “cone and quartering” method is repeatedly used to divide the sample in half until a quantity of 2 g is left.

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An adjustment of the method may possibly be needed for its kronso to other particulate materials with other size distributions. With applications ranging from electronics to wall paints to paper, this organization has you covered.

Each pigment was prepared several times according to the procedure described in the experimental section. We decided to develop a procedure that requires a minimum of subjective, user-based decisions. This website provides links to other websites owned by third parties. The presence of a systematic bias due krinos the kkronos of stereologic correction cannot be verified for the time being, since a certified standard for titanium dioxide is still lacking.

A highly reproducible, statistically tested method for the sizing of pigment-grade rutile and anatase is established. The calcination temperature, as the final step of the powder synthesis of the sulfate process, gives the choice of producing either the low-temperature crystallographic phase, anatase, or the high-temperature crystallographic phase, rutile.