He tenido en cuenta esta necesidad en varias ocasiones, así también con respecto a las Glosas Emilianenses (Hamburg, , versión española Sevilla, ). The Glosas Emilianenses are several different kinds of glosses added to selected parts of a 10th-century manuscript from the region of La Rioja in Northern. Record Number: of Title: Glosas Emilianenses. Description: The website for the ‘Glosas Emilianenses’ offers a wide selection of scholarly works.

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The sentence reads et suscitabi bellum. The glosses presuppose that their user would see them, analyse them and have sufficient time to perform the changes, as a scribe emilianennses be expected to have. Stylistic changes There are features among the grammatical glosses that indicate their not having to do with learning Latin.

See Hagemann for elaboration of these issues. Lingua Patrum 5, Turnhout, p. The translations are mine unless otherwise stated. In this example et is marked o, but when we move uere behind fratres as the sequential glosses indicate, it becomes clear that fratres should be preceded by the gloss o giving. I assume they were not mistakes as much as outputs of the glossators actual language.

He wrote about a thousand years ago in three languages:. The second gloss, ambulauit qui antechristus ad ke.

The other rmilianenses is connected to the relative complexity of the glosses; I show that certain glosses are dependent on the indicated changes in the word order before they make sense. V, [u] [ ]. It is difficult to imagine that the syntax in these texts would cause problems for the average student.


At first glance they look very similar to glosses used for educational reasons, and one of the most important. Within this perspective, all of the glosses, from the sequential glosses consisting of letters to the marginal glosses written in untraditional spelling, are explained as indications on how to copy the texts anew. In a diglossic community H is the high variety, learnt in school and used in formal situations, while L is the low variety, acquired as a mother tongue and used in informal situations.


On the other hand, the stylistic modifications, by some scholars seen as explanatory, seem to be prompted by other mechanisms than understanding. This glossing indicates in the first case that signa may be used with singular verbs, and in the second that it should not be used with plural verbs; these indications entail that signa is singular. This example is the opposite of what we saw above; the position of the gloss is not connected to the word in the base text, but to the position of that word in the text after it has been changed by the sequential glosses.

God Omnipotent, make us do such a service that before His face joyful we are. V, [y] [ ]. These complexities may be explained, however, within the hypothesis that the glosses are indications on how to copy the texts. Suyos son aquellos versos que dicen: I suggest that the Glosas Emilianenses were emendation marks in the manuscript, meant as guidelines to a scribe when copying a new version of the sermons.

Scholars do not agree as to the purpose of these glosses.

Glosas Emilianenses – Wikipedia

Is it merely a coincidence that this type of passive did not survive in Romance, while verb-subject agreement did? If the glossator were a teacher, this would be where he would stress the need for agreement to his students.

The most common changes glosaas moving the verb to initial position on sentence level VSO is obtained in practically all the main declarative sentencesand moving emllianenses determinative before its noun on phrase level. Some of these glosses are seen as very early instances of written Ibero-Romance; however, there are also numerous non-lexical glosses in the manuscript.

It also indicates that Latin grammar, as we understand it, is not the chief concern of the glossator. Some scholars have proposed that it is anachronistic to classify such varieties of Ibero-Romance according to dialectal labels based on geographical particularism before the thirteenth century, leaving the Glosas to be understood as “in an unspecialized informal register of Ibero-Romance”.


Glosas Emilianenses

In some cases a gloss that clearly belongs to a specific word in the text, like a personal pronoun belongs to a verb, is placed not above the verb itself but above the place where the verb is supposed to move to according to ejilianenses sequential glosses.

The grammatical glosses emioianenses additionally have functioned orthographically to indicate in which case words were to be written, thereby also changing some syntactic functions in the texts. I find it unlikely that both subject and object were intended to be placed before the verb in a text where all sentences are changed into verb first sentences.

The Glosses were formerly considered to include the first instances of early Spanish.

Stylistic preferences which overrule syntactic considerations are a clear indication that grammar is not the main concern. This example illustrates the tendency among the glosses to be quite complex, and not always explanatory. As nouns, they often appear introduced by a grammatical gloss e.

The first gloss qui antechristus may have been added for the purpose of understanding: This dependency is one of many examples of the complex relation the glosses have to one another, and suggests the need for time and opportunity to use them. There are features among the grammatical glosses that indicate their not having to do with learning Latin. This viewpoint is strengthened by that fact that the pronoun is glossed with a sequential gloss.

The lexical glosses may be divided into two main subtypes; synonymous and supplementary. In the present paper, I discuss two aspects of the Glosas Emilianenses that have consequences for the ongoing discussion of the overall purpose of the glosses.