Chapter 7. Seventh Edition. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7. What does “psychosocial” mean?. Introduction To Development Test 1 > Chapter 7 – First Two Years During infancy, interactions with sensitive, responsive ___ foster psychosocial development. Bowlby’s attachment theory came about by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth in the ‘s and ‘s. • Bowlby held a strong psychoanalytic.

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He attempted to explain the intensity of her reaction in terms of projection: Interpersonal Psychotherapy IPT IPT was developed initially as a time-limited, weekly psychotherapy for nonbipolar, nonpsychotic, depressed clients Klerman et al. The SE approach was adapted for use in treatment of cannabis dependence Grenyer et al.

Counselors whose clients have an immediate and strong negative reaction to them often benefit from an understanding of the concept of “transference. Through the incorporation of the drug, he supplies for himself the feeling of being accepted and thus of being self-confident; or he creates the experience of being merged with the source of power that gives him the feeling of being strong and worthwhile Blaine and Julius,pp.

Stella began the 19th session complaining that ever since the physician found out she was a drug user, he has treated her differently. Supportive therapy is widely practiced clinically but historically is defined mainly by the absence of expressive or interpretive components of psychoanalytic therapies Cevelopment et al.

It was hypothesized that SE and cognitive therapy psychosovial be more effective than individual drug counseling for clients with higher levels of psychiatric severity. Self Psychology was founded by Heinz Kohut, M. Krystal offers two possible theories of the etiology of substance abuse disorders.

Her response then is to use drugs, which makes her feel strong and independent for a brief time and also makes her see herself as deserving of being thwarted and exploited, which has happened repeatedly in interpersonal contexts in her life.

The techniques used include maintenance of a focus, much work on transference, and a high level of activity on the part of devlopment therapist.

In brief therapy, the central focus is developed during the initial evaluation process, occurring during the first session or two. Developmen have been many studies of the use of SE therapy for substance abuse disorders, resulting in a significant body of empirical data on its effectiveness in treating these problems see below.


However, many psychodynamic therapists work with substance-abusing clients, in conjunction with traditional drug and alcohol treatment programs or as the sole therapist for clients with coexisting disorders, using forms of brief psychodynamic therapy described in more detail below.

Chapter 7 Summary FL13C16 PSYRKYA General Psychology I

It follows, then, that substance-dependent persons will express a strong preference for a particular drug of choice to medicate their particular set of symptoms. For 5 years she was too terrified to leave him.

As a result, the substance abuser relates to the substance based on the disturbed pattern of relating that he experienced with the maternal object Krystal, Turn recording back on. Other titles in these collections. The foci that respond best to STAPP are unresolved Oedipal conflicts, but loss, separation issues, and grief may also be acceptable. Another study involving three methadone programs was also positive regarding the efficacy of SE therapy Woody et al.

Relapse offers the client and the SE therapist the opportunity to examine how the RO and RS can serve as triggers and to devise strategies to avoid these triggers in the future. Following are examples of statements that reflect the core RO of a person with a substance abuse disorder: Luborsky and colleagues are among those who have documented the profound effect that the therapist-client relationship has on the success of treatment, however brief Luborsky et al. The duration of treatment typically is 20 to 30 sessions, with fewer or more as needed.

The alliance that develops between therapist and client is a very important factor in successful therapeutic outcomes Luborsky, In the first session, Stella told Christopher that she had taken chlordiazepoxide for several days before their appointment, to relieve her anxiety.

Acts of the self toward others. She appears to be the kind of person who wears her heart on her sleeve, but it is a big heart nonetheless, capable of caring for others with loyalty and compassion. One reason is that this idea leads to a rather pessimistic belief regarding the outcome of analytic treatments for substance abuse disorders. The maximum number of sessions offered is 40, which Pollack and colleagues point out is more than some of the other brief models because of the higher level of psychopathology of the clients.

Clients were offered once-weekly therapy for 6 months. It has been modified for use with opiate dependence in conjunction with methadone maintenance treatment Luborsky et al. Thus, “[psychodynamic] therapy should be considered as part of an overall treatment plan that includes some kind of drug counseling and possibly other interventions as well, such as medications and family therapy” Levenson et al. However, these typical reactions also fit her core theme: Support Center Support Center.


In its brief form, a psychodynamic approach enables the client to examine unresolved conflicts and symptoms that arise from past dysfunctional relationships and manifest themselves in the need and desire to abuse substances. The superegoformed during latency between age 5 and pubertyoperates to control id drives through guilt Messer and Warren, The goals of supportive therapy are to ameliorate symptoms and to maintain, restore, or improve self-esteem, adaptive skills, and ego function.

Acts of the self toward others Expectations about others’ reactions Acts of others toward the self Acts of the self toward the self introjection. The Therapeutic Alliance The alliance that develops between therapist and client is a very important factor in successful therapeutic outcomes Luborsky, When using brief psychodynamic approaches to therapy for the treatment of substance abuse disorders, the central focus will always be the substance abuse in association with the core conflict.

This study was done in a program in which clients were suspended after 3 months if they continued to use illicit drugs, thus providing a potent behavioral intervention. It was during this period that she started using cocaine. Strategies for dealing with the interpersonal context emerge and are tried by the client problemsolving.

Chapter 7 – First Two Years Psychosocial Flashcards Preview

Therapists using this approach will Develop a good therapeutic alliance. Clear Turn Off Turn On.

Psychodynamic theories endeavor to provide develoment explanations for intrapsychic and interpersonal workings. Levenson and colleagues offer such a theory Levenson et al.

However, in brief psychodynamic therapy this alliance must be established as soon as possible, and therapists conducting this sort of therapy must be able to establish a trusting relationship with their clients in a short time. Many therapists who conduct substance abuse treatment from a psychodynamic perspective are comfortable combining insight-oriented therapy with concrete, behavioral interventions.

Stella experienced Christopher’s agreement and support through his intervention. Results showed that both interventions were helpful but SE therapy produced significantly larger reductions in cannabis use, depression, and anxiety, and increases in psychological health Grenyer et al.

In all psychodynamic therapies, the first goal is to establish a “therapeutic alliance” between therapist and client.