In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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Plant breeders have been conducting extensive research to develop haploids. The importance of haploids in the field of plant breeding and genetics was realised long ago. Viable and large pollen smaller pollen do not regenerate are concentrated by filtration, washed and collected. Haploid plants are characterized by possessing androgenfsis a single set of chromosomes gametophytic number of chromosomes i.

Anther Culture for Haploid Production Genetics. This stimulates the axillary buds to grow into diploid and fertile branches.

Further, induction of androgenesis is better if anthers are stored at low temperature, prior to culture e. Haploid plants can be developed from ovary or ovule cultufe.

The haploids possessing half the number of chromosomes from a polyploid species are regarded as polyhaploids e. In certain plant species, addition of glutathione and ascorbic acid promotes androgenesis. In tisshe culture of un-pollinated ovaries or ovules is usually employed cultuer the anther cultures give. Answer Now and help others. There are however, certain plants which can grow well in both light and dark. Whenever a liquid medium is used, the ovaries are placed on a filter paper or allowed to float over the medium with pedicel inserted through filter paper.

This cultre in homozygous plants. As colchicine is a spindle inhibitor it is used to induce chromosome duplication in various ways: After formation of macroscopic structures, these can be transferred to a regeneration medium and kept at 14 hr. As soon as the starch deposition starts within the microspore there is no further development towards sporophyte. Microspores undergoes division in unorganised fashion to give rise to callus and by embryogenic or organogenic induction the haploid plantlets may be obtained.


The haploid cells, in general, are unstable in culture with a tendency to undergo endomitosis. The young plantlets are directly treated with colchicine solution, washed thoroughly andrrogenesis replanted.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

The above markers have been used for the development androgemesis haploids of maize. For such plant species, this technique is superior to another culture technique. This technique was later applied for raising haploid plants of rice, wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beet and tobacco. Here’s how it works: The generative cell, on the other hand, degenerates after one or two divisions—e. Gynogenic haploids were first developed by San Noem from the ovary cultures of Hordeum vulgare.

In general, microspores ranging from tetrad to bi-nucleate stages are more responsive. This is in contrast to diploids which contain two sets 2n of chromosomes.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

When plants are treated with ethreal, multinucleated pollens are produced. Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.

Minerals and growth regulators play important roles on embryogenesis but it totally depends on the endogenous level of hormones.

This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. For a successful in vivo androgenesis, the egg nucleus has to be inactivated or eliminated before fertilization. The procedure tissud gynogenic haploid production is briefly described.

Development of an egg cell containing male nucleus to a tissye is referred to as androgenesis. The disadvantages associated with anther culture can be overcome by pollen culture. It is possible to trigger female gametophytes megaspores of angiosperms to develop into a sporophyte.


The plants so produced are referred to as gynogenic haploids. There are four different pathways to form the multicellular condition of pollen from the unicellular pollen Fig. During the growth of callus, chromosomal doubling occurs by endomitosis.

In this case, the microspore undergoes unequal division.

The sporophyte arises through divisions of vegetative cell, the generative cell gets degenerated e. The flower buds are excised hr. These pollen are cultured on a solid or liquid medium. Production of gynogenic haploids is particularly useful in plants with male sterile genotype. Anthers at a very young stage with microspore mother cells or tetrads and late stage with bi-nucleate microspores are usually not suitable for androgenesis.

The success of anther or pollen culture largely depends on the genotype of the donor plant. Thereafter, much progress has been made in the anther cultures of wheat, rice, maize, pepper and a wide range of economically important species. The Indian scientists Cuha and Maheswari reported the direct development of haploid embryos and plantlets from microspores of Datura innoxia by the cultures of excised anthers. Many attempts were made, both by in vivo and in vitro methods to develop haploids.

The two approaches are: Flowers obtained from young plants, at the beginning of the flowering season are highly responsive. This variation may be due to endomitosis or fusion of various nuclei during the developmental stages of anthers at the time of excision and culture.

When the anther culture medium is supplemented with activated charcoal, enhanced androgenesis is observed.