EXPANSAO BANTU PDF

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Around this time there is evidence of coastal trading with Arabs, with the South East Asian region, and even with China. Firstly, as the Boers moved north inland from the Cape they encountered the Xhosa, the Basotho, and the Tswana.

By he had conquered a huge empire covering a vast area from the sea in the east to the Drakensberg mountains in the west, and from the Expansa River in the north to the Bashee river in the south, not far from the modern day town of East London.

Blacks from South Africa were at times officially called ” Bantu ” by the apartheid regime. This article needs additional expanswo for verification. In Shaka acceded to the Zulu throne at that stage the Zulu were merely one of the many clans. Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional banru Use dmy dates from January Use South African English from January All Wikipedia articles written in South African English All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December This page was last edited on 14 Julyat Whereas previous battles had been limited to relatively minor encounters, Shaka introduced the more deadly stabbing spear to replace the throwing spear, military encirclement to replace allowed retreat of the enemy, and the total destruction of lands to remove any means of sustenance for the enemy.

In some clans xepansao office was left to the oldest brother bantuu the deceased chief, and after his death again the next oldest brother. The diet consisted of corn introduced from South-East Asiameat mostly wild game, boar, and beefvegetables, milkwater and grain beer.

A cylindrical wall is formed expasnao of vertical posts, which is sealed with mud and cow dung.

Bantu peoples in South Africa

The most important of these were the transformation of the army, thanks to innovative tactics and weapons he conceived, and a showdown with the spiritual leadership, limiting the power of traditional healers, and effectively ensuring the subservience of the Zulu banti to the state. Chiefdom-ship was largely hereditaryalthough chiefs were often replaced when not effective.

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In the Nguni settlements villages were widely scattered, whereas the Sotho—Tswana settled in towns. Traditionally, communities live in two different types of houses. The predominant indigenous population around the Cape was made up of Khoisan peoples.

Língua portuguesa em África – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

The most important differences are the strongly deviating languages, although both are Southern Bantu languagesand the different settlement types and relationships. The smallest unit of the political organizational structure was the householdor kraalconsisting of a man, woman or women, and their children, as well as other relatives living in the same household. The Nguni use the beehive housea circular structure out of long poles, which is covered with grass.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide’s first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill.

Bantu peoples in South Africa – Wikipedia

The roof is built from tied-together poles. As the southern groups of Bantu speakers migrated southwards two banntu groups emerged, the Nguni XhosaZuluNdebeleand Swaziwho occupied the eastern coastal plains, and the Sotho—Tswanawho lived on the interior plateau. Retrieved from expanssao https: The chief was surrounded with a number of trusted friends or advisors, usually relatives like uncles and brothers, rather than influential headmen or personal friends.

These are divided as follows this list is not exhaustive:. There were a number of taboos regarding the consumption of meat. The household and close relations generally played an important role.

The degree of the democracy depended on the strength of the chieftain. Within two years he had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance, some of whom batnu turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni communities, setting in motion what has come to be known as Mfecanea mass migration of communities fleeing the Zulu.

Next was the eldest son banfu the original chieftain; then the oldest one of the brothers as the leader. After the death of the Mthethwa king Dingiswayo aroundat the hands of Zwidethe king of the Ndwandwe, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance. South Africa’s Bantu-speaking communities are roughly classified into four main groups: The man was the head of the household and often had many wives, and was the family’s primary representative.

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This repeated until the last brother died. Within a relatively short period of time he had conquered his neighboring clans and had forged the Zulu into the most important ally of the large Mthethwa clan, which was in competition with the Ndwandwe clan for domination of the northern part of modern-day KwaZulu-Natal. When the early Portuguese sailors cf.

Língua portuguesa em África

Around Trekboers from the Cape encountered Bantu speakers around the Great Fish River and frictions expanwao between the two groups. At some stage after tertiary dispersal period a settlement at Great Zimbabwe was established as the capital of a trading empire. As long as sufficient land was available, they had only very vague conceptions of borders. The more powerful and more influential a chieftain was, the lesser the influence of his people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Following the establishment of the Dutch Cape ColonyEuropean settlers began arriving in Southern Africa in substantial numbers. However, “Bantu” is used without pejorative connotations in other parts of Africa. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

The two language groups have diverged and differ on certain key aspects especially in the sound systems. By using this site, expabsao agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Their food acquisition was primarily limited to agriculture and hunting ; generally the women were responsible for agriculture and the men drew for the hunt. Shaka is well known for the many military, social, cultural and political reforms he used to create his highly organized and centralised Expanszo state.

Bantu-speaking peoples of South Africa.

Exlansao the leader had much power, he was not above the law. The floor of both types is compressed earth. Views Read Edit View history. Traditionally, Bantu speakers were not territorially minded like the Europeans, but rather group-related.

Likewise taboo was the meat of some birdslike owlscrows and vulturesas well as the flesh of certain totem animals. Bntu, food acquisition was by cultivation and hunting.