DIVISION EQUISETOPHYTA PDF
– An online study & reference for reserchers, students in botany with full reference on research institutes and scientific. Division Equisetophyta. Stanley L. Welsh. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum and Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; and Higgins, Larry C. ( ) “Division Equisetophyta,” Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs: Vol. 9, Article 7.
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Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete. The underground parts of the plants consist of jointed rhizomesfrom which roots and aerial axes emerge.
Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae. Morphology and evolution of vascular plants 3rd ed. Sphenophytes bear cones technically strobilising.
The equuisetophyta and their fossil relatives have long been recognized as distinct from other seedless vascular plants.
Retrieved from ” https: The biology and evolution of fossil plants. Archived from the original PDF on The extant horsetails are homosporousbut extinct heterosporous species such as Calamostachys casheana appear in the fossil record. Morphology of vascular plants Lower Groups. Charophytes non-basal Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Mesotaeniaceae.
Classification | USDA PLANTS
The plants have intercalary meristems in each segment of the stem and rhizome that grow as the plant gets taller. However, the leaves of Equisetum probably arose by the reduction of megaphyllsas evidenced by early fossil forms such as Sphenophyllumin which the leaves are broad with branching veins.
This contrasts with the seed plants, which grow from an apical meristem – i. These cones comprise spirally arranged sporangiophores equiwetophyta, which bear sporangia at their edges, equisetiphyta in extant sphenophytes cover the spores externally – like equisetohyta hanging from an umbrella, with its handle embedded in the axis of the cone. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. There were three orders of Equisetopsid; the Pseudobornialeswhich first appeared in the late Devonian.
When ranked as a class, the group has been termed the Equisetopsida  or Sphenopsida. Recent phylogenetic analysis has produced evidence that this group of plants belongs firmly within the fern clade of vascular plants.
Botany/Equisetophyta – Wikibooks, open books for an open world
See also the list of plant orders. In the only extant genus Equisetumthese are small leaves microphylls with a singular vascular trace, fused into a sheath at each stem node. This page was last edited on 28 Novemberat The Equisetopsida were formerly regarded as a separate division of spore plants and also called EquisetophytaArthrophytaCalamophyta or Sphenophyta ; today they have been recognized as rather close relatives of the typical ferns Pteridopsida and form a specialized lineage of the Pteridophyta.
The equisetopnyta first appear in the fossil record during the late Devonian,  a time when land plants were undergoing a rapid diversification, with roots, seeds and leaves having only just evolved. Evolution of horsetails Equisetales within the major euphyllophyte clade Sphenopsida”.
Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Mesotaeniaceae. American Journal of Botany. The origin of the land flora, a theory based upon the facts of alternation. Morphology of Plants and Fungi 5th ed. The spores bear characteristic elatersdistinctive spring-like attachments which are hygroscopic: The Biology and Evolution of fossil plants.
The Sphenophytes comprise photosynthesising, “segmented”, hollow stems, sometimes filled with pith. Charophytes basal Streptofilum Klebsormidiophyceae. The extant horsetails represent a tiny fraction of Sphenophyte diversity in the past. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. All extant species of Equisetum are herbaceous, and have lost the divisio to produce secondary growth.
A recent study by Elgorriaga et al.
Paleobotany and the evolution of plants 2nd ed. When recognized as a separate division, the literature uses many possible names, including Arthrophyta,  Calamophyta, Sphenophyta,   or Equisetophyta. New York and London: