Religion and Society in the Near East, | Berkey’s focus in The Formation of Islam is on ideas and institutions and their social and political context. Khalid Yahya Blankinship; Jonathan P. Berkey. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, – (Themes in Islamic. Berkey is an Associate Professor of History at Davidson College. He describes Islam as having developed across generations, and he writes of various religious .

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The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, volume 1: No doubt Jews participated in the exchange, but it is significant that surviving examples of Jewish- Christian polemic come exclusively from the Christian side.

The Formation of Islam by Jonathan P. Berkey – PDF Drive

Above all, the process grew out of a dialectic involving the various faith traditions, as each attempted to define itself more sharply against the others. According to Nestorius, the patri- arch of Constantinople who gave his name to the sect, Christ was the locus of two entirely independent natures, the divine and the human: From one perspective, there was no such thing as paganism, but there were lots of paganisms, most of them deeply rooted in local and ethnic communities.

The social dimension was equally significant, as merchants crossing inter- national borders cultivated a truly ecumenical outlook. Produced by increasingly literate societies, they were frequently affirmed by scriptures, both those for which a divine origin was claimed the Torah, say, or the Koran and those of a more exegetical character the Talmudas well as those of a more indeterminate nature the Zoroastrian Avestan texts and the surviving com- mentaries in which they are embedded.

Morony, Iraq after the Muslim Conquest Princeton: Berkey mentions the rise of towns and a mercantile economy as having had an impact on religious developments, including Christianity and Islam. The religious identity of a pagan in, say, an Egyptian village may have been related to, and informed by, the dominant myths which have survived in ancient Egyptian literature and the cults of the temples whose finances were increasingly in disarray.

Pagans had not always treated Christians kindly, as the many martyrs might attest. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. Princeton University Press,— Princeton University Press,61—2.


They continued to plague the church through the rise of Islam, and probably contributed to the frustrations felt by Muhammad and his followers at the apparent doctrinal disorder of and internecine squabbling within the Christian community. In the first place, it is employed to indicate religious beliefs and 71 Peter Brown, Augustine of Hippo Berkeley: But the more important nexus for the worsening of the position of Jews in the Sasanian Empire was a political one.

The Jewish community in Egypt was extremely diverse. Thereupon this revelation has come down and this prophecy has appeared in the form of myself, Mani, the envoy of the true God in the Land of Babylon. Cambridge University Press,— And not only are the mainlands full of Jewish colonies but also the most highly esteemed of the islands Euboea, Cyprus and Crete.

By the fourth century, the church was well- established, with a network of churches down to the village level, and a growing body of Christian literature written in or translated into Coptic, the language of the native population.

Islamic Egypt, —, ed. But over time, the tendency was toward a union of the outlook and interests of the state and the Zoroastrian hierarchy. Skip to main content.

As we shall see, the relationship berrkey Judaism and Islam was just as close. The period, in contrast, is only touched on in a nine page epilogue, covering the Ottomans and the “closer symbiosis of secular and religious authority” and the Safavids and how Iran became a majority Twelver Shi’ite state.

Hellenism was a powerful cultural current, one which pulled many Jews into formaion wake. Intellectuality and interpretation — what Berkey calls religious knowledge ‘ilm — was a part of the development of Islam. Zaehner, Dawn and Twilight, —8.

The formation of Islam: religion and society in the Near East, 600-1800

And ilam early Muslim polemicists defended their radical monotheism in the face of Iranian dualism, it was the compelling mythology and syncretistic pf of Mani, rather than the Zoroastrianism associated with the Sasanian state, which occupied most of their attention.


And he describes common patterns in social and political organisation, the legal system, and the transmission of religious knowledge. In what if we will try to elucidate briefly the identities and parameters of the traditions involved in the religious competition of late antiquity.

And Monophysite frustrations did not dissipate quickly. Princeton University Press,54—5f. Dodds used the phrase to describe the third century, but it is just as descriptive of the ensuing centuries. In the centuries before the rise of Islam, the Near East was dominated by two rival states. The religions of late antiquity 29 foundation of bsrkey and kingship protects religion. University of Michigan Press,5—6. Popular religion, often involving syncretic elements and the veneration of individuals as well as mystical ideas, posed a broader threat to the authority of the ulama.

Brill,—, esp. Islak the tensions also had a social dimension. According to the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes, when Arab armies besieged the town of Pergamon inits inhabitants in desperation resorted to a magician and his rather startling formula for salvation.

Secondly, and more importantly, urban commercial economies tended to make social inequities more conspicuous and brought social injustices into sharper relief. Jews constituted a significant minority of the population in many Mediterranean towns, and Judaism had an impact on the religious lives of many non-Jews as well.

Berkey’s focus in The Formation of Islam is on ideas and institutions and their social and political context, exploring how the core ideological and structural features of Islam developed. On certain matters of ritual touching intimate areas of human life and expectations, divergence in practice could create real feelings of uneasiness or even revulsion: The size and prestige of the Babylonian community grew at the direct expense of the Jewish community of Palestine.

Christianity continued to grow down to and even into the Islamic period, at the expense of Jews, pagans, and Zoroastrians; by the late sixth dormation, it constituted probably the single largest confessional community in Iraq.